The Adriatic's western shores are largely either alluvial or terraced, whereas the eastern shores are predominantly rocky, except for the southernmost part of the shore located in Albania that consists of sandy coves and rocky capes. [186] In this period, the Republic of Venice began to expand its territory and influence. la mer Adriatique; iii) la mer Ionienne et la mer Méditerranée centrale; iv) la mer Égée-mer Levantine. [221], During World War II, the Adriatic saw only limited naval action, starting with the Italian invasion of Albania and the joint Axis invasion of Yugoslavia. Quand partir Côte Adriatique, Italie. Following Italian unification, the Kingdom of Italy started an eastward expansion that lasted until the 20th century. [155], Settlements along the Adriatic dating to between 6100 and 5900 BC appear in Albania and Dalmatia on the eastern coast, related to the Cardium pottery culture. Les États membres notifient toute subdivision à la Commission au plus tard à la date précisée à l’article 26, paragraphe 1, premier alinéa, mais ils peuvent la modifier après achèvement de l’évaluation initiale visée à l’article 5, paragraphe 2, point a) i). ", "Facing Water Challenges in the Po River Basin, Italy: A WWDR3 Case Study", "Technology: Venetians put barrage to the test against the Adriatic", "Venice's 1,500-year battle with the waves", "Venice's MOSE flood barriers rise for the first time", "Submerged Karst – Dead or Alive? The Central Adriatic is especially abundant in endemic plant species, with 535 identified species of green, brown and red algae. [204] The campaign reached its climax in the 1811 Battle of Lissa,[citation needed] and ended with British and Austrian troops seizing the coastal cities on the eastern Adriatic coast from the French. Italian fisheries, including those operating outside the Adriatic, employed 60,700 in the primary sector, including aquaculture (which comprises 40% of the total fisheries production). [50], The predominant winter winds are the bora and sirocco (called jugo along the eastern coast). Adriatic Croatia's tourism industry has grown faster economically than the rest of the Adriatic Basin's. [294], Port of Durrës, the largest port in Albania, Port of Rijeka, the largest cargo port in Croatia, Port of Koper, the largest port in Slovenia, Port of Trieste, the largest cargo port in the Adriatic, "Adriatic" redirects here. [249] Overfishing is a recognised problem—450 species of fish live in the Adriatic Sea, including 120 species threatened by excessive commercial fishing, a problem exacerbated by pollution and global warming. The largest Adriatic seaport by annual cargo turnover is the Port of Trieste, while the Port of Split is the largest Adriatic seaport by passengers served per year. [126][128] It includes a 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) long cliff, the northernmost Mediterranean salt field and the only Slovenian lagoon system. [51] During particularly cold winters, sea ice may appear in the Adriatic's shallow coastal areas, especially in the Venetian Lagoon but also in isolated shallows as far south as Tisno (south of Zadar). The area encompasses 1.8 kilometres (1.1 mi) of coastline near the Miramare promontory in the Gulf of Trieste. [44] In terms of the annual total discharge into the entire Mediterranean Sea, the Po is ranked second, followed by the Neretva and Drin, which rank as third and fourth. Mer. There are dozens of marine protected areas in the Adriatic, designed to protect the sea's karst habitats and biodiversity. [197], In 1648, the Holy Roman Empire lost its claim on its former Italian lands, formally ending the Kingdom of Italy; however, its only outlet on the Adriatic Sea, the Duchy of Ferrara, was already lost to the Papal States. [125], In Slovenia, the marine and coastal protected nature areas are the Sečovlje Salina Landscape Park, Strunjan Landscape Park, Škocjan Inlet Nature Reserve, and the Debeli Rtič, Cape Madona and Lakes in Fiesa natural monuments. La carte ci-dessous présente une moyenne mensuelle de la température de l'eau de la mer adriatique pour le mois de août pour plusieurs villes côtières. [237] The depleted stocks of fish are being addressed through a new proposed EU fisheries policy that was scheduled to take effect in 2013, when Croatia acceded to the EU,[254] and restore the stocks to sustainable levels by 2015. [236] Following Croatian EU membership, the Adriatic became an internal sea of the EU. The Adriatic gas fields were discovered in the 1970s,[285]:265 but their development commenced in 1996. The territory was turned back over to France after the Peace of Pressburg in 1805, when the territory in the Po valley became an integral part of the new Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. Connexion entre les installations offshore dans la mer du Nord. [189] Still, the 1381 Treaty of Turin that ended the war required Venice to renounce claims to Dalmatia, after losing the territory to Hungary in 1358. This separation began in the Middle and Late Triassic, when limestone began to be deposited in the area. utilisent des couches de cendres volcaniques, présentes dans une carotte de la mer Adriatique, comme horizons repères. (For instance, approximately 500 years are necessary to exchange all the Black Sea's water.) [101] Basking sharks[104] and manta rays are some of migrant species to the sea. Au printemps, la température de la mer grimpe à 20°C pour atteindre son maximum à 26°C en été. fév. When tides are predicted to rise above 110 centimetres (43 in), the pontoons will be filled with air and block the incoming water from the Adriatic Sea. ... Sea level, evaporation, precipitation, temperature. Veneto is followed by the Emilia-Romagna region and by the Adriatic Croatian counties. [277] In 2010, the Northern Adriatic seaports of Trieste, Venice, Ravenna, Koper and Rijeka founded the North Adriatic Ports Association to position themselves more favourably in the EU's transport systems. [21] The number includes islands, islets, and rocks of all sizes, including ones emerging at ebb tide only. [117] Furthermore, there are 10 internationally important (Ramsar) wetland reserves in Italy located along the Adriatic coast. [13] Transversely, the Adriatic Sea is also asymmetric: the Apennine peninsular coast is relatively smooth with very few islands and the Monte Conero and Gargano promontories as the only significant protrusions into the sea; in contrast, the Balkan peninsular coast is rugged with numerous islands, especially in Croatia. [111], The biodiversity of the Adriatic is relatively high, and several marine protected areas have been established by countries along its coasts. The surface water temperatures generally range from 30 °C (86 °F) in summer to 12 °C (54 °F) in winter, significantly moderating the Adriatic Basin's climate. Implemented for the first time on October 3, 2020,[70] the barriers are made to seal off three inlets that lead to the Venetian Lagoon and counteract floods of up to ten feet; in addition to protecting the city from flooding, the barrier system is also intended to stabilize Venice's water levels so as to minimize erosion of the brick walls and, subsequently, the foundations of various buildings in the city. [105][106][107] Historical presences of depleted or extinct species such as North Atlantic right whales (extinct or functionally extinct), Atlantic gray whales (extinct), and humpback whales have been speculated as well. [245][246][247] Aside from the EU membership difficulty, even before its settling the dispute has caused no major practical problems. [18] The North Adriatic basin, extending between Venice and Trieste towards a line connecting Ancona and Zadar, is only 15 metres (49 ft) deep at its northwestern end; it gradually deepens towards the southeast. int. However, proposed export oil pipelines were objected to specifically because of this issue. 27 such hotspots have been determined as of 2011, 6 warranting an urgent response. [253] Turtles and common bottlenose dolphins are also being killed by fishing nets. [229] The ensuing Croatian War of Independence included limited naval engagements and a blockade of Croatia's coast by the Yugoslav Navy,[230] leading to the Battle of the Dalmatian channels and a later withdrawal of Yugoslav vessels. Mer adriatique ou méditérranée ? Voici les températures moyennes de la mer. However, during the reign of Justinian the Byzantine Empire sent an army under the general Belisarius to regain control of Italy, resulting in the Gothic War (535–554). [69] The Adriatic Sea (/ˌeɪdriˈætɪk/) is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. [17], The Adriatic Sea contains more than 1,300 islands and islets, most along the Adriatic's eastern coast—especially in Croatia, with 1,246 counted. De la mi mai à la mi Octobre, les températures de l'eau sont au dessus de 20 degrés ce qui permet de profiter de belles journées de plage ensoleillées, de plus si le temps change un peu n'hésitez pas à vous promener dans le parc naturel du … [137], In 2010, Albania established its first marine protection area, the Karaburun-Sazan National Marine Park at the Karaburun Peninsula where the Adriatic and Ionian Seas meet. [211] The Ottoman Empire lost all territories along the Adriatic following the First Balkan War and consequent 1913 Treaty of London that established an independent Albania. Durant l’hiver, la température de l’eau frôle les 15°C. [47] The inflow of freshwater, representing a third of the freshwater volume flowing into the Mediterranean,[13] makes the Adriatic a dilution basin for the Mediterranean Sea. The park covers 69 kilometres (43 mi) of coastline, 22.95 square kilometres (8.86 sq mi) of land and 44.55 square kilometres (17.20 sq mi) of sea. The plate's movement contributed to the formation of the surrounding mountain chains and Apennine tectonic uplift after its collision with the Eurasian plate. janv. [186] The Adriatic coastline controlled by the Ottoman Empire was reduced by the Congress of Berlin in 1878, through recognition of the independence of the Principality of Montenegro, which controlled the coast south of the Bay of Kotor to the Bojana River. ... Déjà en mai, la température oscille entre 21 et 25°C. Examples from the eastern Adriatic Coast (Croatia)", "New Fault Found in Europe; May "Close Up" Adriatic Sea", "Surface and subsurface karst geomorphology in the Murge (Apulia, Southern Italy)", "Zavarovano območje narave: Krajinski park Strunjan / Area prottetta: Parco naturale di Strugnano", "Geological processes in the Anthropocene: the Po River Delta", "Ecological indicators of estuarine features on hard substrata in the large North Adriatic lagoons", "Rapid assessment of the Ecological Value of the Bojana-Buna Delta", "The Neretva Delta: Green Pearl of Coastal Croatia", Status and Conservation of Cetaceans in the Adriatic Sea, "Fin whales in the Adriatic - Tethys Research Institute", "Incontro ravvicinato nel Mar Adriatico con uno squalo di 8 metri", "On the presence of basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus)in the Mediterranean Sea", "Jadransko more je puno morskih pasa, kitova, kornjača i dupina", Ancient whale exploitation in the Mediterranean: species matters, "Fourth national report of the Republic of Croatia to the Convention on Biological Diversity", "The potential of Maritime Spatial Planning in the Mediterranean Sea – Case study report: The Adriatic Sea", "Marine protected areas in Slovenia: How far are we from the 2012/2020 target? The coast's ruggedness is exacerbated by the Dinaric Alps' proximity to the coast, in contrast to the opposite (Italian) coast where the Apennine Mountains are further away from the shoreline. The Adriatic Sea sits on the Apulian or Adriatic Microplate, which separated from the African Plate in the Mesozoic era. Part I. Température mer: 14° 14° 14° 16° 19° 23° 26° 25° 24° 21° 19° 16° It exports inorganic nutrients and imports particulate organic carbon and nitrogen through the Strait of Otranto—acting as a mineralization site. [130] The 429-hectare (1,060-acre) Strunjan Landscape Park was established in 2004 and comprises two nature reserves. [260] Adriatic tourism is a significant source of income for these countries, especially in Croatia and Montenegro where the tourism income generated along the Adriatic coast represents the bulk of such income. This rate of discharge amounts to 0.5% of the total Adriatic Sea volume, or a 1.3-metre (4 ft 3 in) layer of water each year. The Adriatic contains over 1,300 islands, mostly located along the Croatian part of its eastern coast. In May 2003, then-Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi inaugurated the MOSE project (Italian: Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico), an experimental model for evaluating the performance of inflatable gates. Italy and Albania agreed on their maritime boundary in 1992. It contributes to the flow of bottom water from the Adriatic to the Levantine Basin through the Ionian Sea. août sept. oct. nov. déc. Entre novembre et mai, la témpérature de l'eau est inférieure à 20°. [206] The Congress of Vienna also created the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia which encompassed the city of Venice, the surrounding coast and a substantial hinterland, and was controlled by Austria. Posez vos questions et parcourez les 3 200 000 messages actuellement en ligne. [293] As of January 2012, only 200 exploration wells had been sunk off the Croatian coast, with all but 30 in the Northern Adriatic basin. océanique. That boundary became more consistently defined by Roman authors – early Greek sources place the boundary between the Adriatic and Ionian seas at various places ranging from adjacent to the Gulf of Venice to the southern tip of the Peloponnese, eastern shores of Sicily and western shores of Crete. balnéaire Sea. Météo Marine - Météo Côtière - Météo Marine à 15 jours ⛵ pour les Ports, les Zones Côtières, le Large, et les Plans d'eau en France, en Europe, et en Méditerranée ☼ - Toute l'Actualité et les Alertes Météo avec METEO CONSULT - L'assistance Météo en Direct - Prévisions Météo Marine gratuites et Abonnements Météo Marine Sulla used it during the First Mithridatic War. [265], There are nineteen Adriatic Sea ports (in four different countries) that each handle more than a million tonnes of cargo per year. The largest cargo ports among them are the Port of Trieste (the largest Adriatic cargo port in Italy), the Port of Venice, the Port of Ravenna, the Port of Koper (the largest Slovenian port),[272] the Port of Rijeka (the largest Croatian cargo port), and the Port of Brindisi. In the Middle Ages, the Adriatic shores and the sea itself were controlled, to a varying extent, by a series of states—most notably the Byzantine Empire, the Croatian Kingdom, the Republic of Venice, the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire. The most common species are Cymodocea nodosa and Zostera noltii, while Zostera marina and Posidonia oceanica are comparatively rare. The former disintegrated during the 1990s, resulting in four new states on the Adriatic coast. [76] Earthquakes have been observed in the region since the earliest historical records. [171] During the 4th century AD the emperors of the Western Roman Empire had moved their official residence north from Rome to Mediolanum (now Milan) in order to be better able to control the military frontier with the Germanic tribes. [78] Historical earthquakes in the area include the 1627 Gargano peninsula and the 1667 Dubrovnik earthquakes, both followed by strong tsunamis. [9] It extends 800 kilometres (500 mi) from the northwest to the southeast and is 200 kilometres (120 mi) wide. The Byzantines established the Exarchate of Ravenna and by 553 AD their viceroy (Exarch) ruled almost the entire Italian peninsula from that city. [174][175] The Ostrogothic Kingdom ruled Italy following the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD. By the 2nd century BC, the shores were under Rome's control. These are particularly due to or dependent upon the karst morphology of the coastal or submarine topography; this includes inhabiting subterranean habitats, karst rivers, and areas around freshwater springs. Thomas Fromm "Pipeline durch die Alpen: Alles im Fluss" In: Süddeutsche Zeitung, 26 December 2019. janv. [38] Finally, Venice is increasingly vulnerable to flooding due to coastal area soil subsidence. [32][81] There are five geomorphological units in the Adriatic: the Northern Adriatic (up to 100 metres (330 ft) deep); the North Adriatic islands area protected against sediments filling it in by outer islands (pre-Holocene karst relief); the Middle Adriatic islands area (large Dalmatian islands); the Middle Adriatic (characterized by the Middle Adriatic Depression); and the Southern Adriatic consisting of a coastal shelf and the Southern Adriatic Depression. [213] Italy joined the Allies in April 1915 with the Treaty of London, which promised Italy the Austrian Littoral, northern Dalmatia, the port of Vlorë, most of the eastern Adriatic islands and Albania as a protectorate. In the Adriatic's southernmost areas the border was not determined in order to avoid prejudicing the location of the tripoint with the Albanian continental shelf border, which remains undefined. [224], During the Cold War, the Adriatic Sea became the southernmost flank of the Iron Curtain as Italy joined NATO,[225] while the Warsaw Pact established bases in Albania. [40][41][42], It is estimated that the Adriatic's entire volume is exchanged through the Strait of Otranto in 3.4±0.4 years, a comparatively short period. Plusieurs pays ont leurs côtes au bord de la mer adriatique, parmi lesquels : l'Albanie, la Bosnie-Herzégovine, la Croatie, les Îles croates, l'Italie et la Slovénie. Fish population analysis. [243] In addition, the maritime boundary between Albania and Montenegro was not defined before the 1990s. [79] In the last 600 years, fifteen tsunamis have occurred in the Adriatic Sea. Moyennes mensuelles de la température de la mer sur 12 mois octobre 2020 Température de l'eau moyenne : 70°F (68°F à 72°F) septembre 2020 Température de l'eau moyenne : 76°F (72°F à 77°F) août 2020 Température de l'eau moyenne : 79°F (76°F à 81°F) juillet 2020 Température de l'eau moyenne : 77°F (76°F à 79°F) juin 2020 [278][279], The port of Trieste is of particular importance for Central Europe, because this is where the Transalpine Pipeline begins, supplying 100 percent of southern Germany, 90 percent of Austria and 50 percent of the Czech Republic with crude oil. Niveau de la mer, évaporation, précipitations, température. In the Late Oligocene, the motion was reversed and the Apennine Mountains' orogeny took place. [112] The Brijuni national park encompasses the 743.3-hectare (1,837-acre) archipelago itself and 2,651.7 hectares (6,552 acres) of surrounding sea;[119] it became a national park in 1999. [173], In the Early Middle Ages, after the Roman Empire's decline, the Adriatic's coasts were ruled by Ostrogoths, Lombards and the Byzantine Empire. Au cours de l'année, il tombe 800 mm de pluie ; la neige est plus rare qu'à Milan et Turin, et en tout cas pas abondante, mais la ville est soumise au vent froid en provenance de l'Europe de l'est, la Bora. © Des Clics Nomades/ 2015-2020 - Tous droits réservés. [263] For Montenegro, the direct contribution of tourism to the national GDP is 8.1%, with the total contribution to the economy at 17.2% of Montenegrin GDP. [162] However, resistance to Roman rule continued sporadically and Rome did not completely consolidate control of the region until Augustus's general Tiberius put down the Great Illyrian Revolt, a bitter struggle waged from 6 to 9 AD. Holcer D.. Fortuna M.C.. Mackelworth C. P.. 2014. In the Adriatic, there are at least 410 species and subspecies of fish, representing approximately 70% of Mediterranean taxa, with at least 7 species endemic to the Adriatic. [2] In classical antiquity, the sea was known as Mare Adriaticum (Mare Hadriaticum, also sometimes simplified to Adria) or, less frequently, as Mare Superum, "[the] upper sea". [258] In 2007, the fisheries production in Bosnia–Herzegovina reached volume of 9,625 tonnes (9,473 long tons) and 2,463 tonnes (2,424 long tons) in Slovenia. [250] ZERP was introduced in 2003, but its application to EU member states was suspended in 2004. [222] In 1947, after the Armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces and the war's end, Italy (now a republic) and the Allies signed the Treaty of Peace with Italy. The most frequent sampling period was from 1966 to 1979, which contained no data gaps, followed by quasi-randomly distributed gaps in the series. Température moyenne à Vieste 10 10 12 14 18 23 25 26 23 18 14 11: Température minimum à Vieste 7 7 8 10 14 19 21 21 19 15 11 ... Quand partir à la plage en Adriatique. [291] The discovery was followed by further surveys off the Croatian coast. [112] In addition, Albania is home to two Ramsar wetland reserves: Karavasta Lagoon, and Butrint. George. [154] Future pollution hazards are addressed and pollution hotspots are assessed not only by nations in the basin but also through regional projects with World Bank support. Pesca … Controlez que la température de la mer est idéale avec nos informations mises à jour en temps réel et nos prévisions de la température de la mer pour les jours à venir ville par ville en Croatie. It covers 138,600 square kilometres (53,500 sq mi) and has a volume of 35,000 cubic kilometres (8,400 cu mi). This route played a major role in some of the military operations that marked the end of the Roman Republic and start of the imperial period. [72], The eastern Adriatic shore's Croatian part is the most indented Mediterranean coastline. Overexploited species include common dentex, red scorpionfish, monkfish, John Dory, blue shark, spiny dogfish,[250] mullet, red mullet, Norway lobster,[251] as well as European hake,[252] and sardines. [236], The maritime boundary between Bosnia–Herzegovina and Croatia was formally settled in 1999, but a few issues are still in dispute—the Klek peninsula and two islets in the border area. Connection between offshore facilities in the North Sea. [131] It is also the northernmost point of growth of some Mediterranean plant species. [72] An unbroken zone of increased seismic activity borders the Adriatic Sea, with a belt of thrust faults generally oriented in the northeast–southwest direction on the east coast and the northeast–southwest normal faults in the Apennines, indicating an Adriatic counterclockwise rotation. Taken from bottoms temperature ranges from 12 to 16.5°C--40-800 m but they are cought mainly between 100 and 300 m: Citation: 7 , 18 , 27 ... Piccinetti, C. (1983) Distribution des larves de Mullus barbatus L. en Adriatique. If this movement continues, the seafloor will be completely consumed and the Adriatic Sea closed off in 50–70 million years. Surveys indicate reserves of 3 billion barrels of oil in place and 5.7×1010 cubic metres (2,000,000,000,000 cu ft) of gas in place. The bulk of its food is made of endo-, meso- and epi-biontic sea organisms. [123] The Bay of Mali Ston is located at the border of Croatia and Bosnia–Herzegovina, north of the Pelješac peninsula. [140] Venice is often cited as an example of polluted coastal waters where shipping, transportation, farming, manufacturing and wastewater disposal contribute to polluting the sea. Various zones of the protected area cover 37 square kilometres (14 sq mi) of sea surface. Température de l'eau de la mer adriatique en janvier - Minimum : 50°F/Maximum : 59°F Température de l'eau de la mer adriatique en février - Minimum : 48°F/Maximum : 59°F Température de l'eau de la mer adriatique en mars - Minimum : 50°F/Maximum : 60°F Température de l'eau de la mer adriatique en avril - Minimum : 56°F/Maximum : 61°F Température de l'eau de la mer adriatique en mai - Minimum : … Recent studies have suggested that the city is no longer sinking,[66][67] but a state of alert remains in place. [96] This is reflected in its biogeography and ecology, and particularly in the composition and properties of its ecosystems. In the territory outside the Austrian Littoral, special status was given to Fiume (modern day Rijeka) as a separate part of the Kingdom of Hungary. ", "Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profiles – Italy", "Glavni plan i strategija razvoja turizma Republike Hrvatske", "International tourism in the coastal regions of five Mediterranean countries", "Intervju: Načelnik općine Neum dr. Živko Matuško za BH. [160][161] Those wars ended with the eastern shore becoming a province of the Roman Republic. [128][129] In 1993, the area was designated a Ramsar site;[126] it is also a site of international importance for waterbird species. Temperature and salinity were measured at the stations: P1 on 56% of cruises, 95% at P2, 77% at P3, 67% at P4, 66% at P5 and 40% at P6. Such tides can exceed normal levels by more than 140 centimetres (55 in),[35] with the highest tide level of 194 centimetres (76 in) observed on 4 November 1966. [191] The 15th and the 16th centuries brought about the Byzantine Empire's destruction in 1453 and the Ottoman Empire's expansion that reached Adriatic shores in present-day Albania and Montenegro as well as the immediate hinterland of the Dalmatian coast,[192][193] defeating the Hungarian and Croatian armies at Krbava in 1493 and Mohács in 1526. [89] In the 12th century, the delta advanced at a rate of 25 metres (82 ft) per year. [132] The Škocjan Inlet Nature Reserve was established in 1998 and covers 122 hectares (300 acres). The Croatian National Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan identified more than 7,000 animal and plant species in the Adriatic Sea. [138] Two additional marine protection areas are planned in Albania: the Cape of Rodon (Albanian: Kepi i Rodonit) and Porto Palermo. [196] Ottoman raids on the Adriatic coasts effectively ceased after the massive setback in the Battle of Lepanto in October 1571. Brundisium was linked by the Via Appia road to the city of Rome, and Dyrrachium and Apollonia were both on the Via Egnatia, a road that by about 130 BC the Romans had extended eastward across the Balkans to Byzantium (later Constantinople, now Istanbul). [133] The Debeli Rtič natural monument covers 24 hectares (59 acres),[134] the Cape Madona natural monument covers 12 hectares (30 acres),[135] and the Lakes in Fiesa natural monument, with the coastal lake as the only brackish lake in Slovenia,[136] covers 2.1 hectares (5.2 acres). Chlorophyll a concentration data were supplied by Drs A.Tsuda, H.Saito and H.Kasai of the Hokkaido National Fisheries Research Institute. The 170-metre (560 ft) deep Palagruža Sill is south of the Middle Adriatic Pit, separating it from the 1,200-metre (3,900 ft) deep South Adriatic Pit and the Middle Adriatic basin from the South Adriatic Basin. Italy and Yugoslavia agreed on their maritime boundaries by 1975 and this boundary is recognised by Yugoslavia's successor states, but the maritime boundaries between Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Montenegro are still disputed. Geophysical and geological information indicate that the Adriatic Sea and the Po Valley are associated with a tectonic microplate—identified as the Apulian or Adriatic Plate—that separated from the African Plate during the Mesozoic era. [10], The Adriatic Sea drainage basin encompasses 235,000 square kilometres (91,000 sq mi), yielding a land–sea ratio of 1.8. [108], Tuna has been caught by the locals in the upper Adriatic for thousands of years. [73] An active 200-kilometre (120 mi) fault has been identified to the northwest of Dubrovnik, adding to the Dalmatian islands as the Eurasian Plate slides over the Adriatic microplate. [257], In 2007, Albanian fisheries production amounted to 7,505 tonnes (7,386 long tons),[248] including aquaculture production, which reached 1,970 tonnes (1,940 long tons) in 2006. All successor states of former Yugoslavia accepted the agreements. [290], In the 2000s, investigation works aimed at discovering gas and oil reserves in the Middle and Southern Adriatic basins intensified, and by the decade's end, oil and natural gas reserves were discovered southeast of the Bari, Brindisi—Rovesti and Giove oil discoveries. [82] Most of the eastern coast is characterised by a karst topography, developed from the Adriatic Carbonate Platform's exposure to weathering. Cycles biologique des copepodes (Crustacea) de la mer Adriatique. [176], The last part of the period saw the rise of the Carolingian Empire and then the Frankish Kingdom of Italy, which controlled the Adriatic Sea's western coast,[177] while Byzantine Dalmatia on the east coast gradually shrunk following the Avar and Croatian invasions starting in the 7th century. The amphidromic point is at the mid-width east of Ancona. [261][262] The direct contribution of travel and tourism to Croatia's GDP stood at 5.1% in 2011, with the total industry contribution estimated at 12.8% of the national GDP. The treaty reversed all wartime annexations, guaranteed the independence of Albania, created the Free Territory of Trieste (FTT) as a city-state, and gave communist Yugoslavia most of the Slovenian Littoral, as well as Istria, the islands of Cres, Lastovo and Palagruža, and the cities of Zadar and Rijeka. Google Scholar. [236][244] Croatia's application to become an EU member state was initially suspended pending resolution of its border disputes with Slovenia. mars avril mai juin juil. [83], The largest part of the eastern coast consists of carbonate rocks, while flysch (a particular type of sedimentary rock) is significantly represented in the Gulf of Trieste coast, especially along Slovenia's coast where the 80-metre (260 ft) Strunjan cliff—the highest cliff on the entire Adriatic and the only one of its type on the eastern Adriatic coast—is located,[84] on the Kvarner Gulf coast opposite Krk, and in Dalmatia north of Split. [46] The submarine springs include thermal springs, discovered offshore near the town of Izola. [80], All types of seafloor sediments are found in the Adriatic Sea. The project proposes laying a series of 79 inflatable pontoons across the sea bed at the three entrances to the Venetian Lagoon.

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